Evaluation of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Effects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Highlights of Two Decades of Research In Vitro Studies (2021)
This is a meta-analysis was performed using 3249 in vitro experimental observations available in 92 scientific journals (1999-2019) in order to determine the potential effects of PEMF on different cell types of both human and rat/mouse. this study provided us insight into that which cell types could be more responsive to PEMFs. Additionally, we determined the range of frequencies and intensities which PEMFs appeared more effective
Long-term treatment with transcranial pulsed electromagnetic fields improves movement speed and elevates cerebrospinal erythropoietin in Parkinson’s disease (Apr 2021)
Treatment with transcranial bipolar pulsed electromagnetic fields improved functional performance by increasing dopamine levels in the brain, possibly through erythropoietin induced neural repair and/or protection of dopaminergic neurons.
Promising applications of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs) in musculoskeletal disorders (Nov 2020)
Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) are non-invasive, safe and effective physical therapy, with no significant side effects. PEMFs provide a new alternative for the treatment of various musculoskeletal disorders.
Pulsed electromagnetic fields improve the healing process of Achilles tendinopathy: a pilot study in a rat model (Oct 2020)
The daily exposure to PEMFs generally provided an improvement in the fibre organization, a decrease in cell density, vascularity, and fat deposition, and a restoration of the physiological cell morphology compared to untreated tendons.
Conclusion: PEMFs exerted a positive role in the tendon healing process, thus representing a promising conservative treatment for tendinopathy, although further investigations regarding the clinical evaluation are needed.
Role of pulsed electromagnetic fields after joint replacements – World Journal of Orthopedics (June 2020)
The purpose of this review was to analyze the existing literature on PEMFs effects in joint replacement surgery and to report the results of clinical studies and current indications. It selected all currently available prospective studies or Randomized Control Trials on the use of PEMFs in total joint replacement with the purpose of investigating effects of PEMFs on recovery, pain relief and patients’ satisfaction following hip, knee or shoulder arthroplasty. All the studies analyzed reported no adverse effects and good patient compliance with the treatment. The available literature shows that early control of joint inflammation process in the first days after surgery through the use of PEMFs should be considered an effective completion of the surgical procedure to improve the patient’s functional recovery.
Effect of Rehabilitation with Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field on Molecular Mechanism of Apoptosis in Post-Stroke Patients – Brain Sciences (May 2020)
The study established that ELF-EMF additionally increases the expression of pro-apoptotic genes. Enhancement of apoptosis in post-stroke rehabilitated patients can significantly contribute to improving repair processes and increasing neuroplasticity owing to the removal of redundant or damaged cells.
Impact of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy on vascular function and blood pressure in hypertensive individual (Wiley, Apr 2020)
The present study investigated the impact of 12weeks of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy on peripheral vascular function, blood pressure (BP), and nitric oxide in hypertensive individuals. After therapy, the PEMF group demonstrated significant improvements in flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and FMDNOR (normalized to hyperemia), but the control group did not. Moreover, systolic blood pres-sure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were reduced, but the control group did not. There were no significant alterations in NO in both groups. Twelve weeks of PEMF therapy may improve BP and vascular function in hypertensive individuals.
The impact of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy on blood pressure and circulating nitric oxide levels: a double-blind, randomized study in subjects with metabolic syndrome (Aug 2019)
Conclusion: PEMF may increase plasma NO (nitric oxide) availability and improve BP (blood pressure) at rest and during exercise. However, this beneficial effect appears to be more pronounced in subjects with existing hypertension.
The efficiency of pulsed electromagnetic fields on pain, disability, anxiety, depression, and quality of life in patients with cervical disc herniation: a randomized controlled study (Aug 2019)
Conclusion: PEMF therapy in cervical disc herniation can be used safely in routine treatment in addition to conventional physical therapy modalities.
Short-Term impacts of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in middle-aged university’s employees with non-specific low back pain: A pilot study (Jul-Aug 2019)
Conclusions: PEMT therapy may decrease pain, Lower Back Pain (LBP) disability, increase lumbar spine mobility, and improve health-related quality of life in middle-aged university’s employees with nonspecific LBP.
Effects of Low-Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on High-Altitude Stress Ulcer Healing in Rats (Jun 2019)
Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that PEMFs can accelerate High-altitude stress ulcer (HSU) restoration, which is evidenced by quantitative gastric juice pH value and Ulcer-Index (UI) observation, histological results, TNF-α protein, and Norepinephrine (NE) detection. Based on the results, the findings indicated that PEMF, as an effective noninvasive and accessible therapeutic method, might provide an exciting therapeutic alternative for HSU treatment.
Under some special conditions, PEMF, as adjuvant therapy, could be combined with drugs to treat gastric ulcer, the actual effects of which require subsequent experiments
Targeting Mesenchymal Stromal Cells/Pericytes (MSCs) With Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) Has the Potential to Treat Rheumatoid Arthritis (Mar 2019)
PEMF has also been reported to increase the functional activity of MSCs to improve differentiation to chondrocytes and osteocytes. Moreover, PEMF has been demonstrated to accelerate cell differentiation, increase deposition of collagen, and potentially return vascular dysfunction back to homeostasis
Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on learning and memory abilities of STZ-induced dementia rats (Mar 2019)
Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the pulsed EMF exposure can improve the ability of learning and memory in Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced dementia rats and this effect may be related to the process of IGF signal transduction, suggesting a potential role for the pulsed EMF for the amelioration of cognition impairment.
Low Frequency pulsed electromagnetic field promotes functional recovery, reduces inflammation and oxidative stress, and enhances HSP70 expression following spinal cord injury (Jan 2019)
In conclusion, the findings of the present study revealed that the administration of LPEMFs reduces inflammation and oxidative stress to promote functional recovery following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), and the potential mechanism involves the activation of Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70). The findings provide a new perspective for identifying novel noninvasive therapeutic methods for early intervention following SCI.
The Effects of Exposure to Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Male Fertility (Jul 2018)
Conclusions: LowFequency-EMF at 15 Hz with a peak intensity of 8 Gauss, with a square waveform of 50 Hz frequency and a duration of a few hours or less can have a positive effect on sperm quality, motility, and fertility. Exposures at other frequencies either had no effects on the sperm’s performance and quality or held biological hazard for cells. It appears that there is still little understanding of how EMF affects cellular functions. Therefore, more standardized and controlled studies should be carried out to understand the effects of EMF on the body.
Underlying Signaling Pathways and Therapeutic Applications of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in Bone Repair (Mar 2018)
In recent decades, PEMF stimulation has received tremendous attention as a prospective, noninvasive, and safe physical strategy to accelerate bone repair. Physical PEMF stimulation initiates the signalling cascades, which effectively promote osteogenesis and angiogenesis in an orchestrated spatiotemporal manner, ultimately enhancing the self-repair capability of bone tissue. Although the bone repair promotion potential of PEMF stimulation has shown positive benefits in the treatment of various skeletal diseases, many studies about PEMFs in experimental biology and clinical therapy are still needed to make them more effective and extend their clinical applications.
Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields and TissueEngineering of the Joints (Nov 2017)
PEMF stimulated chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix synthesis by the release of anabolic morphogens such as bone morphogenetic proteins and anti-inflammatory cytokines by adenosine receptors A2A and A3 in both in vitro and in vivo. Investigations. It is noteworthy that in clinical translational investigations a beneficial effect was observed on improving function in OA knees.
Adenosine Receptors as a Biological Pathway for the Anti-Inflammatory and Beneficial Effects of Low-Frequency Low Energy Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (Feb 2017)
The inflammatory state represents a complex issue in many pathological conditions at both the central nervous and peripheral systems related to the presence of elevated levels of proinflammatory mediators. It is well known that biophysical stimulation with PEMFs promotes anabolic activity resulting in an increase in chondrocyte proteoglycan synthesis [74–76]. Several experimental results support the hypothesis that PEMF treatment is chondroprotective and is accompanied by the control of inflammation [18, 77]. The effectiveness of the treatment has also been shown in patients where the control of joint microenvironment by PEMFs is an important therapeutic approach in the perspective of new regenerative medicine for musculoskeletal disorders .
The results reported in this review highlight that the increase of A2A and A3ARs induced by PEMFs in different cells involves a reduction of some of the most relevant proinflammatory cytokines. Of particular interest is the observation that the PEMFs determine an increased functioning of the endogenous agonist adenosine, a potent modulator of various physiological and pathological responses. In fact, PEMFs through the increase of ARs enhance the working efficiency of adenosine, producing a more physiological effect than the use of drugs. Consequently, the anti-inflammatory effect of adenosine enhanced by PEMF may not be accompanied by the side effects, desensitization, and receptor downregulation often related to the use of agonists . In particular, prolonged stimulation of the membrane receptors with an exogenous agonist can dampen the ability to transduce the signal which is followed by the process of the receptor internalization into specific vesicles inside the membrane . Therefore, the prolonged use of agonists decreases the receptor density by reducing the effect of the drug itself, while the PEMFs potentiate the effect of endogenous adenosine as an anti-inflammatory agent. This observation suggests the hypothesis that PEMFs may be an interesting approach as a noninvasive treatment with a low impact on daily life mediating a significant increase on the effect of the endogenous modulator.
In conclusion, PEMFs represent an important approach in the pharmacological field providing encouraging therapeutic results in various inflammatory diseases, in the functional recovery of the damaged cartilage tissues, in pain, or in central nervous system disorders.
Pulsed magnetic field versus ultrasound (US) in the treatment of postnatal carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS): A randomized controlled trial in the women of an Egyptian population (Jan 2017)
It can be concluded that PEMF has a significant and superior effect on CTS in postnatal women, as compared to therapeutic Ultrasound (US). This superior effect was found in the reduction in pain, improvement in the electrophysiological studies, and handgrip strength. There are no reported side effects, discomforts, or known health risks from PEMF therapy, and it is generally accepted that brief exposure to this modality is safe. PEMF has lower treatment costs than surgery, but its cost-effectiveness in comparison with other therapeutic options needs further investigation. There is a need to develop a treatment guideline for CTS, which includes a combination of different modalities and techniques.
Extremely Low-Frequency electromagnetic fields stimulation modulates autoimmunity and immune responses: a possible immuno-modulatory therapeutic effect in neurodegenerative diseases (Dec 2016)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5270416/ (Read the full article here)
In the light of results reviewed here, we conclude that there is growing evidence of the potential role of EMFs in biological modulation of autoimmunity, immune functions and oxidative stress. As a consequence, the hypothesis that ELF-EMFs explicit their therapeutic effect through modulation of immune relevant cells is of clear interest, in particular in neurodegenerative diseases.
It is notable to underline that the effects of ELF-EMFs are not unique as they depend on their intensity, exposure time and cellular targets; further efforts towards more scheduled and well-defined
level and timing of exposure should be warranted
Mechanism and therapeutic effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in oncology (Nov 2016)
Cancer is one of the most common causes of death worldwide. Available treatments are associated with numerous side effects and only a low percentage of patients achieve complete remission. Therefore, there is a strong need for new therapeutic strategies. In this regard, pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy presents several potential advantages including non‐invasiveness, safety, lack of toxicity for non‐cancerous cells, and the possibility of being combined with other available therapies. Indeed, PEMF stimulation has already been used in the context of various cancer types including skin, breast, prostate, hepatocellular, lung, ovarian, pancreatic, bladder, thyroid, and colon cancer in vitro and in vivo. At present, only limited application of PEMF in cancer has been documented in humans. In this article, we review the experimental and clinical evidence of PEMF therapy discussing future perspectives in its use in oncology.
In conclusion, only two clinical studies have used PEMF therapy for cancer treatment. These studies show that PEMF therapy is safe and promising compared to other available cancer therapies. In the future, PEMFs could be used not only as primary therapy but also in combination with other common antineoplastic therapies. Given that new portable and affordable PEMF devices are increasingly available on the market, future controlled clinical studies are expected to further determine the potential of PEMF therapy in oncology.
Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on peripheral blood circulation in people with diabetes: A randomized controlled trial (May 2016)
Cutaneous blood flow provides nourishment that plays an essential role in maintaining skin health. We examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on cutaneous circulation of dorsal feet. Twenty-two patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and 21 healthy control subjects were randomly allocated to receive either PEMFs or sham PEMFs (0.5 mT, 12 Hz, 30 min). Blood flow velocity and diameter of the small vein were examined by using ultrasound biomicroscopy; also, microcirculation at the skin over the base of the 1st metatarsal bone (Flux1) and distal 1st phalange (Flux2) was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry before and after the intervention. Results indicated that PEMFs produced significantly greater changes in blood flow velocity of the smallest observable vein than did sham PEMFs (both P < 0.05) in both types of subjects. However, no significant difference was found in changes of vein diameter, nor in Flux1 and Flux2, between PEMFs and sham PEMFs groups in subjects with or without DM. We hypothesized that PEMFs would increase the blood flow velocity of the smallest observable vein in people with or without DM.
Effects of PEMF on patients with osteoarthritis: Results of a prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blind study (Nov 2015)
Results of this partly randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study show clinically at any rate, that use of PEMF lead to highly significant better results in the treatment group compared to the placebo group with regard to the total WOMAC global score and especially for visual analogue scale. Patient assessment of the “effectiveness” was rated in 29.5% as very good and good in 27.3% compared to 0.0% and 15.4% in controls. This therapy is thus a useful complementary treatment option with no side effects.
Increases in microvascular perfusion and tissue oxygenation via pulsed electromagnetic fields in the healthy rat brain (May 2015)
High-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation is an emerging noninvasive therapy being used clinically to facilitate bone and cutaneous wound healing. Although the mechanisms of action of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) are unknown, some studies suggest that its effects are mediated by increased nitric oxide (NO), a well-known vasodilator. The authors hypothesized that in the brain, PEMF increase NO, which induces vasodilation, enhances microvascular perfusion and tissue oxygenation, and maybe a useful adjunct therapy in stroke and traumatic brain injury. To test this hypothesis, they studied the effect of PEMF on a healthy rat brain with and without NO synthase (NOS) inhibition.
Conclusion: Our observations show that PEMF induces arteriolar dilation by a NO-dependent mechanism. Vasodilation leads to an increase in cerebral microvascular blood flow and, as a result, improved tissue oxygenation that persists for 3 hours. Our studies explain a possible mechanism of action of PEMF in wound healing and suggest that PEMF may be an effective treatment strategy after severe traumatic and ischemic brain insults.
Pulsed electromagnetic field improves cardiac function in response to myocardial infarction (2014)
An extracorporeal pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has been shown the ability to improve regeneration in various ischemic episodes. Here, we examined whether PEMF therapy facilitates cardiac recovery in rat myocardial infarction (MI), and the cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying PEMF-related therapy was further investigated. The MI rats were exposed to active PEMF for 4 cycles per day (8 minutes/cycle, 30 ± 3 Hz, 5 mT) after MI induction. The data demonstrated that PEMF treatment significantly inhibited cardiac apoptosis and improved cardiac systolic function. Moreover, PEMF treatment increased capillary density, the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxic inducible factor-1α in the infarct border zone. Furthermore, the number and function of circulating endothelial progenitor cells were advanced in PEMF treating rats. In vitro, PEMF induced the degree of human umbilical venous endothelial cells tubulization and increased soluble pro-angiogenic factor secretion (VEGF and nitric oxide). In conclusion, PEMF therapy preserves cardiac systolic function, inhibits apoptosis and trigger postnatal neovascularization in ischemic myocardium.
A 1-μT extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field vs. sham control for mild-to-moderate hypertension: a double-blind, randomized study (Jan 2011)
https://www.nature.com/articles/hr2010246 (Full text)
There was a statistically significant difference between the extremely low-frequency EMF and sham groups with respect to the absolute change in SBP value between baseline and the end of the exposure regimen. Our findings suggest that repeated ELF-EMF exposure has an effect on Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP). This finding warrants a larger controlled clinical trial to determine whether long-term repeated exposure to 1-μT ELF-EMFs has a beneficial effect on hypertensive humans, such that it could reduce dependence on or obviate the need for pharmacotherapy.